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Henry soon quarreled with the Duke of Norfolk, each accusing the other of arranging the murder of the Duke of Gloucester and calling for a trial by battle. Both men were banished from the realm, Norfolk for life and Henry for 10 years with a proviso that he would be allowed to inherit from his father. But on the death of John of Gaunt in , the Lancastrian estates were confiscated by the King, and Henry decided to return, ostensibly to claim his promised inheritance. Taking advantage of the King's absence in Ireland, Henry landed on July 4, , at Ravenspur, near Bridlington, where he was soon joined by the northern nobles who were unhappy with the policies of the monarchy.

By the end of the month Henry and his followers had raised an army and marched to Bristol. When Richard returned in August, the royal army started to desert; Henry claimed the throne for himself, and on August 19 he captured Richard near Conway. He then went with his prisoner to London and there, on September 29, Richard abdicated. On October 13 Parliament formally deposed Richard and transferred the crown to Henry.

This parliamentary action had constitutional importance, since it revived the claim that Parliament had the power to create monarchs.

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Prior to his coronation, Henry condemned Richard to imprisonment, where the deposed monarch soon died, possibly due to starvation. Once on the throne, Henry spent his reign solidifying his position and removing the threat posed by the nobles who supported Richard. He was an active supporter of the Orthodox Church against the Lollards, and in De heretico comburendo, one of the most important medieval statutes, was passed.

In the north the Percy family rose against the King, but Henry checked them in July at Shrewsbury and the following year at Dartmouth. A revolt by the 1st Earl of Northumberland, Archbishop Scrope, and the Earl Marshal was checked in , and 2 years later the Beauforts' claims to the throne were ended.

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By the Battle of Brabham Moor in , the domestic threats to the throne were ended, and Henry could turn his attention to the civil wars in France as well as reforming his household administration. He was able to check an attempt to force him to resign in favor of his more popular son later Henry V , but his health declined, perhaps because of epilepsy. On March 20, , he was seized with a fatal attack while praying at Westminster Abbey and died in the Jerusalem Chamber. He was buried at Canterbury.

The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 3: Counter-Reformation and Price Revolution, 1559-1610

An excellent modern biography of Henry IV is J. Kirby, Henry IV of England See also V. An able, ruthless, and secretive monarch, he led the empire into a disastrous confrontation with Pope Gregory VII in the Investiture Controversy. His father died when he was only 6, and he had a long and difficult minority as king, since early in he was taken from his mother and raised by a bevy of quarreling, scheming bishops.

In he came of age and began governing on his own. He was married twice, first to Bertha of Savoy and late in his reign, after her death, to Praxedis of Russia. Henry attempted, initially, to reassert his father's old imperial rights throughout the empire and also to build up a new, strong imperial domain in Saxony. This led to serious uprisings in in which Saxons and southern German nobles combined against him.

By he had suppressed these revolts, only to begin a quarrel with Pope Gregory VII over the imperial right to appoint or invest churchmen with their offices. Gregory and Church reformers claimed that neither rulers nor any other laymen could exercise this right—despite long precedent. Angry at Gregory's opposition to his appointing an archbishop of Milan, in Henry hastily summoned a council of German bishops who declared Pope Gregory deposed.

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Gregory answered by declaring Emperor Henry excommunicated and suspended from office. This encouraged German nobles again to rebel and to summon the Pope to come to Augsburg and sit in judgment on their ruler. Fearing the results of such collaboration between the Pope and German magnates, Henry slipped through the Alpine passes and met Pope Gregory at Canossa in northern Italy in , where, as a penitent, he prevailed upon the Pope to forgive him. This prevented Gregory, much against his will, from continuing to work with the German nobles against Henry, which, of course, was Henry's objective.

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Despite lack of papal support, Henry's German opponents chose an antiking, Rudolf of Swabia. But Henry returned across the Alps and defeated him.


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Rudolf died soon thereafter, in , and Henry reopened hostilities with Pope Gregory. Despite a renewal of his excommunication, he led another army into Italy and by had marched on Rome and set up an antipope there who crowned him emperor. Gregory was saved from capture only by a large Norman force, which rescued him at the cost of a severe plundering of the city of Rome itself.

The Pope had to retire with the Normans south toward Naples and died in exile the following year. Please try again. About this product. Stock photo. Pre-owned: lowest price The lowest-priced item that has been used or worn previously. Shows some signs of wear, and may have some markings on the inside. Shipped to over one million happy customers. See details. See all 4 pre-owned listings. Buy It Now.

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Add to cart. Would that all men had such wisdom. Copyright by the University of Michigan Press. Reprinted by Permission of Princeton University Press. Selections appearing on pages passim from Vols. Selections appearing on pages , , , , reprinted from Christopher Hill, Reformation to the Industrial Revolution, , Vol.

Selections appearing on pages , from II. Reproduced by permission. Selections appearing on pages , reprinted from H. Wernham, ed. Copyright by the Cambridge University Press.