These mechanisms and devices are directly related to the social phantoms and fantasies that structure the politics of the sensibilities of a particular state of the political economy of morality [ 2 ]. In this context, it is easy to see that the set of convergent processes in socialization is embedded in a specific surface and in regimes of truth, as well as, centrally, in their material conditions of existence. That is, socialization varies according to the regimes of accumulation, the forms of State, and the spatial-temporal contexts. From another perspective and recently it is possible to observe research on: socialization practices of Asian American second generation parents [ 5 ], perception of cross-generational differences in child behavior and parent socialization in China [ 6 ], the socialization experiences of Afghan adolescent refugees in an Iranian context [ 7 ].
It is from this setting that the central question of this chapter emerges: What is the situation of the process of socialization of children, adolescents, and young people in the current Global South structural conditions? The question points to a very simple direction: to analyze concretely the material conditions of existence of children, adolescents, and young people that make socialization practices possible or difficult.
Concrete examples of this re-spatialization are preventive war, forms of expulsion from migration, and dispossession of commons goods. Where the conditions of imposition, heteronomy, and segregation are updated, the Global South is instantiated as a planetary form of the expansion of the market as the only measure of things. Thus, in this chapter we make clear how insufficient and unequal distribution of nutrients, accumulation of deficiencies, and structural deficits in education clearly indicate the existence of a process that we will call disallowance of socialization , like a form of socialization: socialization-in-the-non.
By showing evidence in this respect, we also strongly emphasize that love, in terms of interstitial practice, is the hiatus of the politics of sensibilities that rejects the aforementioned denial.
Children and Emotion
By looking into reflections and theories about affection, emotions and feelings [ 8 ], we found references to seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth century social philosophers, including Descartes, Montesquieu, Bentham, Pascal, La Mettrie and Darwin, among others. Early sociologists like Comte, Durkheim, Fourier, Marx, Sombart, Simmel and Weber also stated that emotional control is yet another form of discipline, one which affects social practices, relationships and worldviews in a reciprocal and dynamic way [ 9 ].
To a great extent, such concerns are also addressed in contemporary social theory, from different perspectives, by Bourdieu, Giddens, Foucault, Agamben and Esposito.
In this context, Brian Turner and David Le Breton have been regarded as forerunners of social studies on the body, including the inquiries about emotions made by Kemper, Hochschild, Scheff, Collins and Illouz [ 10 , 11 ]. A different perspective toward understanding the theoretical traditions that usually support the studies in this field of inquiry is to turn to the classic authors on this theme: Nietzsche, Merleau-Ponty, Spinoza and Marx.
An additional view is gained in the presence of contemporary authors of sociology such as Goffman, Simmel and Elias, from the philosophy of Derrida, Butler and Deleuze, or the psychoanalysis of Freud, Lacan and Zizek. From another perspective, it is necessary to also consider what Lisa Blackman and Mike Featherstone have recently stated. This is a new post-humanism that examines our communality with other forms of creaturely life and companion species Haraway , and the need for a non-anthropocentric ethics Derrida. The focus upon life recognizes the governance and regulation of bodies bio-politics , as well as investments across diverse practices media, consumer, biotechnological in both the materiality and immateriality of bodies as biocapital and bio-media code, information.
As is often seen in Latin America as well as in other regions of the world, body ies and society ies are systematic objects of research where affectivity and sensitivity are strongly present. Smith and Schenider [ 13 ] maintain that the numerous theories on emotions can be grouped within a tripartite classification: determinism, social constructionism, and social interaction. Social agents experience the world through their bodies.
Impressions of objects, phenomena, processes and other agents structure the perceptions that subjects accumulate and reproduce. This configuration consists of a logic built by impression, perception, and the result of these, which gives a sense of surplus of sensations.
Parental Socialization of Emotion — Arizona State University
That is to say, it locates them on both sides of the aforementioned logic. Sensations, as causes and results of perceptions, give place to emotions as the effect of the process of assigning and matching between perceptions and sensations.
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Emotions, seen as consequences of sensations, can be seen as the completed puzzle coming together between sensations and action. So identifying, classifying, and completing the connection between perceptions, sensations and emotions are vital for understanding the mechanisms for regulating sensations, used by capitalism as a contemporary means of social domination. The need to distinguish and link the possible relations between sociability, experience and social sensibilities becomes crucial at this point. Sociability is a way of expressing the means by which agents live and coexist interactively.
Experience is a way of expressing the meaning gained while being in physical proximity with others. It is a result of experiencing the dialog between the individual body, the social body and the subjective body on the one hand, and the natural appropriation of bodily and social energies on the other. For the body to be able to reproduce experience and sociability, it is necessary for the bodily energy [to be] an object of production and consumption. At the same time, the social energy shown through the social body is based on bodily energy, and refers to the allocation processes of such energy as the basis of the conditions of movement and action.
Thus, sensations are distributed according to the specific forms of bodily capital. The forms of sociability and experience are intertwined and twisted in a Moebius band with the sensibilities that arise as a result of mechanisms for regulating sensations. Social sensibilities are continually updating the emotional schemes that arise from the accepted and acceptable norms of sensations. They are just a little closer or distanced from the interrelationships between sociability and experience. As such, the policies of the body—that is to say, the strategies that a society accepts in order to respond to the social availability of individuals—are part, and not a small one, of the power structure.
From what has been put forth above, it is possible to understand that the logic of capital means that each subject is a potential merchandise and that, for them to become so, it is necessary to regulate sensations. That is to say, causing these subjects to become merchandise requires shaping the perception they have of themselves, annulling the sense that their lives are a set of objectifications, and which implies the dispossession and plundering of themselves. Sociability, experience and sensibilities form a space of practices of the feeling that build and are built by the processes of socialization.
There are three fundamental features that contribute to understanding the context of socialization of children in the territories of what here we refer to as Global South: the situation of education, poverty and nutritional deficits. In this context, it is possible to understand how the reproduction of devices for the regulation of sensations is the contents of socialization processes creating the conditions for a specific politics of sensibilities.
The regulation of sensations is the basic process that shapes the affective cognitive modalities by which subjects learn what is socially acceptable and what is allowed to them. The complex interconnection between social bearability mechanisms and the devices for the regulation of sensations expresses and produces all the socialization process that derives from the material conditions of life. The policies of the body and the emotions are within and developed in specific geopolitical and geocultural contexts. In the current situation of the Global South, we can partly characterize such context by understanding the transformation of two of the most important axes: the social accumulation regime and the political regime.
The former refers to a set of economic, social, cultural and judicial institutions through which the process of production, distribution and accumulation reproduction of material goods and values of a society are performed. While the political regime can be understood as a set of governmental and non-governmental institutions and processes carried out by social actors vested with a measure of power.
It is through this measure that the political domination of society is exercised. One axis through which the policies of bodies and emotions are connected with the political regime is education. The educational processes, together with the family, are the pillars of all socialization. Through these conceptual vectors, the processes of socialization can be analyzed from their inscription—as a condition of possibility and as a result—of specific social sensibilities.
In this regard, we must point out that although the institution of education has lost its monopolizing role in the establishment of knowledge after the transformations that took place in Latin American countries during the last decades, it still retains an important role in the processes of socialization. However, it is necessary to determine its scope and characterize the impact of recent transformations. In this regard, pointing out the role of schools and the education system in modern society, Carranza observes:.
Such regulatory function acquires certain characteristics in Argentina, due to the impact of public policies promoted by the State during the industrialization period and within the framework of a social pact between the capital and labor—first half of twentieth century. In this social formation—and despite an incomplete absorption of the workforce by the modern sectors—work held some centrality associating to a stable social condition, through its connection to rights and guarantees that did not exist so far. In this context, and along with the process of economic growth, the expansion of enrollment at all levels reached large segments of the population.
In this sense, Alieto Guadagni acknowledges that:. But now we know the results of the Learning Assessment, which last year examined state schools and private schools for , students in fifth and sixth grade in high school. These results are conclusive because, unfortunately, they indicate that our school system is not breaking the negative cycle of the intergenerational reproduction of poverty. In other words, the knowledge of senior students in high school depends, essentially, on the socioeconomic status of their parents. Percentage of high school seniors with lowest level of mathematical knowledge, according to management system .
Percentage of high school students with lowest level of mathematical knowledge based on socioeconomic status . A similar perspective is gained by observing coverage at the primary level. If primary school enrollment is observed, the information follows the already outlined trend:. We are witnessing a steady state school exodus process.
This brief review of some significant data about recent transformations in the educational system allows us to notice one of the most important changes of the last decades: the privatization of the school institution in a country with a strong state public tradition. The paradox of the increase in the public education budget with the concomitant increase of the private enrollment rates implies a set of modifications for the possible socializations.
Emotion understanding of Turkish preschoolers and maternal emotional socialization
These sustain and, at the same time, are instantiated as a result of the mentioned transformations in educational institutions. The state public education sends a clear message: the private is more effective, thus socializing an aspect of negativity that implies denial. Poverty in terms of deprivation implies the second feature of denial conditions of socialization. The implemented methodology selects 10 dimensions nutrition, health, education, information, sanitation, housing, environment, protection against violence, protection against child labor and leisure linked to 28 indicators e.
In this way, we could make a map of the experience of these subjects from the indicators defined in the report for each dimension-deprivation:. Context of deprivation as a condition for socialization [ 32 ]. Instead of emphasizing the absence of the causing factor linked to deprivation, the notion of denial seeks to identify a process from which the impossibilities of the constitution of the individual, subjective and social bodies are configured. The scenario of its emergence can be described in a very simple way: along all these decades the State has recognized that a variable but important number of citizens cannot or have problems having an adequate food intake.
The mere fact of maintaining such state practices over time, despite the obvious modifications they have undergone over the decades, points to the persistence of the problem: a significant part of Argentine citizens cannot meet their food needs through the free sale of their labor. Two of the upheld characteristics of the policies mentioned are their continuity with similar criteria and their massification. Maceira and Stechina, in an article published in , describe the food policy from to and argue that:.
This accounts for the broad coverage they provide. The stage of increasing decentralization and targeting of social policy, which began in the 90s, had systematically been eroding the universality that had characterized, for example, the school canteens program and the Mother and Child Program. In the analyzed period, the main criterion for the selection of beneficiaries has been, in general terms, the unsatisfied basic needs of the population.
Some have kept considering the organization of civil society in relation to the community as a criterion of inclusion. Since , food programs have tried to unify the beneficiary population, keeping children, women, and the elderly as a priority. The way of providing the benefit has been basically through the food packages supplemented, in the last years, with tickets or vouchers.
The content, frequency of delivery, and nutritional value of the components of the packages have not been efficient or adequate, generally speaking.
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The evidence found shows that malnutrition, despite having decreased, represents such an enormous problem that it is ranked as one of the most important national public health problems, greatly influencing high rates of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as prevalence of certain chronic diseases, which are difficult to quantify. Furthermore, the economic cost of the disease is very high—hospital expenses, productivity, education expenses, lower purchasing power, etc. Pregnant women suffer from nutritional deficiencies that could be avoided, childhood obesity has become more frequent, and there are still cases of food shortening, acute malnutrition, and low early childhood weight.
In addition to all these, there are great inequalities between socio-economic strata. There are even some negative aspects regarding crucial nutrients such as calcium intake and energy consumption among the program beneficiaries. In short, we could say that: the more help they receive, the less energy they have and the more handling of weak bodies there is.
The more lasting the help is, the greater are the epigenetic consequences. Parent gender differences in emotion socialization behaviors vary by ethnicity and child gender. Parenting: Science and Practice , 15, Differences between mothers and fathers varied as a function of ethnicity. Mothers and fathers showed similar levels of negative expressiveness in European American and African American families, whereas fathers were more negatively expressive than mothers in Lumbee families.
Mothers reported more supportive reactions than fathers among European Americans and Lumbees, but African American mothers and fathers reported nearly equal levels of supportive reactions. For boys, however, parent gender differences in supportive reactions to negative emotions varied by ethnicity. Mothers were more supportive than fathers among European American parents of boys, but mothers were less supportive than fathers among African American parents of boys.
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