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For a longer perspective, research is ongoing for other. Key issues of research include. The applications of similar methodology include Yamaji et al. The latest example is Ito et al. Conclusions rather similar to those in Figure 3 are found, though cost data reflect further development and improvement during the period. If we try to convert these results to cost value in terms of generated power, a simple formula is applied.

This can be compared to 5.


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This paper discussed recent developments and the current status of spent nuclear fuel management in Japan. With the increasing pressure of spent nuclear fuel discharge from the power plants in operation and, by contrast, uncertainties in their processing and management services, spent nuclear fuel storage in the short and medium terms has been receiving the highest priority in nuclear policy formulation in Japan.

Small-scale interim storage devices, as well as capacity expansion, for example, re-racking, and shared uses of existing devices, are being introduced at a number of power stations. Large-scale AFR storage of recyclable fuel resources is to be realized in the medium and long terms. Commercial operation of the storage of recyclable fuel resources concept may be in the off-ing, as the amendment to the law for regulation of nuclear power reactors and other nuclear-related activities has passed in the Diet. In the Mutsu initiative the following three points should be heeded:. If it is realized with a multiutility venture, it will be a centralized facility, and the issue of local acceptance must be carefully dealt with and overcome.

Atomic Energy Commission, Japan. Final Report for Fiscal submitted to the Government. Technical Reports Series No. Vienna: IAEA. Ito, C. Saegusa, and K. Research Report No. Economical evaluation on spent fuel storage technology away from reactor. Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Environment 8 1. Nagano, K. Saegusa, C. Ito, et al. Denryoku-keizai Kenkyu Economics and Public Utilities — Banff, Canada. A strategic consideration on nuclear fuel cycle with spent nuclear fuel management as its core.

Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Environment 8 2. Doctoral thesis, Univ. Systems analysis of spent fuel management in Japan I. Projection of material balances and storage needs. Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology 40 4 — Systems analysis of spent fuel management in Japan II. Methodologies for economic analyses of spent fuel storage. Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology 40 4 : — The Economics of Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Paris: OECD. Saegusa, T. Activities and future issues on research of spent nuclear fuel storage in Japan. Nuclear Eye 44 4 — Summary Report No.

Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy. Yamaji, K. Nagano, and T. Research Report L The amendment in meant that such an operation of spent nuclear fuel storage became recognized and put in the normal regulatory formula. Among the electorate, Tohoku Electric Power Co. Japan Atomic Power Co. As part of a long-standing collaboration on nuclear nonproliferation, the National Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences held a joint workshop in Moscow in on the scientific aspects of an international radioactive disposal site in Russia.

The passage of Russian laws permitting the importation and storage of high-level radioactive material primarily spent nuclear fuel from reactors has engendered interest from a number of foreign governments, including the U. The workshop focused on the environmental aspects of the general location and characteristics of a possible storage site, transportation to and within the site, containers for transportation and storage, inventory and accountability, audits and inspections, and handling technologies.

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U.S. Spent Nuclear Fuel Policy: Road to Nowhere [Part V: Lessons]

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Suggested Citation: "Experience of Japan. Page 97 Share Cite. Page 98 Share Cite. Page 99 Share Cite. Page Share Cite. Key issues of research include long-term integrity of massive concrete structures long-term integrity of thin metal canisters safety standards in operation and maintenance, especially unloading and loading for transportation The applications of similar methodology include Yamaji et al.

This could be an important milestone for HLW repository siting. For more detail see Nagano c, b. As spent nuclear fuel accumulation approaches the capacities of those reactor pools, some nuclear power stations are forced to supplement at-reactor AR storage capacity in order to avoid an overflow of the reactor pools.

SITE SELECTION FOR SPENT FUEL STORAGE AND DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE

Several other stations have added storage capacity by re-racking storage pools, some of which are found in Table 1. It is clear that opportunities for enhancing existing AR storage capacity is almost exhausted, which strongly suggests urgent needs for away from reactor AFR storage measures. TEPCo, responded immediately and initiated a feasibility study. The report was submitted to the city on April 3, On request from the city a supplementary business plan was submitted on April 10, Its details will be touched upon in a subsequent section. Spent nuclear fuel storage was first mentioned in the Long-Term Program for Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy, which is regularly revised and published by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan as the fundamental nuclear policy document in Japan.

In the Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Utilization of Nuclear Energy a special section was added for future methods of spent nuclear fuel storage, as well as ways to manage spent mixed oxide MOX fuel. The cabinet supported the report in February In order to plan steps to realize conceptual views provided in the interim report the Working Group for Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Measures was formed with representatives from the government and major electric power companies EPCos.

The working group, after a series of intensive discussion during March —March , submitted its final report, revealing the concept of storage of recyclable fuel resources, as well as possible regulatory schemes for storage service providers and the related legal framework.

DSC Publications Archive

One should not overlook the fact that it was emphasized in both of these reports that because spent nuclear fuel storage is a safe and static process, virtually any business venture may be able to enter into the market of storage services, as long as it meets relevant regulatory principles. While this statement was intended partly for better public acceptance, it is still worth paying attention to the fact that such a competitive atmosphere was already anticipated positively by those representatives from the government and the power utility industry.

The law for regulation of nuclear power reactors and other nuclear-related operations the Regulation Law, hereafter was amended in June , as a follow-up to the interim report. Related regulatory schemes, such as safety design criteria of facilities, are under preparation accordingly. The latest Long-term Program for Research, Development, and Utilization published in December simply followed up the series of arguments and discussions described above. Future prospects of spent nuclear fuel management, namely, the demand for additional storage measures, are influenced largely by the following factors:.

This clearly illustrates the importance of repeating projections whenever there are any changes in the above-mentioned factors. In the long run it is obvious that large-scale storage devices are needed. This is particularly true after , when the first commercial LWR plant reaches the end of its year lifetime.

After that, a series of LWR plants will be shut down, which means, on the one hand, a large amount of one-time discharge of spent nuclear fuel, and on the other hand, a loss of the storage capacity of the reactor pools. Based on the existing amount of spent nuclear fuel stocks, Nagano a,c; a projected spent nuclear fuel balances in Japan up to the year , using an integrated tool SFTRACE spent fuel storage, transportation and cost evaluation system. The results are shown in Table 3. As a result the Japanese nuclear industry should prepare a storage capacity at around 10, to 15, MTU in the medium term, for example, by Then, in the long-run, up to , the storage needs would differ significantly, from a decrease to none to a continuous increase up to the level of 25, MTU.

Special attention should be given to the plutonium utilization in LWR plants. Spent MOX fuel will have to be stored, as the Rokkasho reprocessing plant is. Assumptions for Projection Cases: Case O: No second reprocessing plant; the first reprocessing plant receives older spent fuel as prioritized. Case N: No second reprocessing plant; the first reprocessing plant receives newer spent fuel higher burn-up as prioritized. Significant uncertainty has been cast on MOX fuel utilization because of local opposition, which was vividly demonstrated by the negative results of the vote by Kariwa villagers 4 on May 27, Storage duration is set at a maximum of 50 years.

The Reserve Center is expected to commence by and to accept spent nuclear fuel from those utility companies that joined the operating company. The author draws attention to three points. Except for the Rokkasho Fuel Cycle Center whose siting took place years ago,. The total nuclear power generation capacity is 70 GWe in and 80 GWe in , respectively. Nuclear Waste Management Organization NUMO , the entity responsible for HLW disposal is promoting a stepwise siting processes, and now it is in its first stage of inviting local townships to nominate themselves as candidates for preliminary site investigation.

Its schedule is to reach a final selection by about The Mutsu initiative may have two implications to this NUMO process; first, as already mentioned, to allow time for NUMO to exercise its plan, and second, to demonstrate successful experience of facility siting, with full transparency of all relevant information and a sufficient level of public participation. Since spent nuclear fuel storage remains in a precommercial stage, we only have a few examples of cost analysis and little is known about possible market prices.

The Net Present Value NPV of a project is a measure of the value of a project, defined as a sum of all the discounted cost streams associated with the project, that is,. The levelized unit cost LUC of storage is the unit price of storage. Thus, the formula 2 is based on the assumption that the storage fee is paid upon receipt of spent nuclear fuel at a uniform unit price, which is LUC , namely,. Figure 3 shows an example from Saegusa , where a comparison among storage options is presented at MTU AFR storage under the Japanese circumstances.

Although the water pool storage is a mature technology with plenty of experience from existing reactor pools, its economics may suffer from high capital investments as well as high operation and maintenance costs due to requirements for forced circulation and quality control of the cooling water.

Safeguarding the environment by removing spent nuclear fuel from Andreeva Bay

The metal cask has received the highest priority in implementing storage facilities in the short and medium terms, with its superb modularity and economics compared with the water pool. For a longer perspective, research is ongoing for other. Key issues of research include. The applications of similar methodology include Yamaji et al. The latest example is Ito et al. Conclusions rather similar to those in Figure 3 are found, though cost data reflect further development and improvement during the period.

If we try to convert these results to cost value in terms of generated power, a simple formula is applied.

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This can be compared to 5. This paper discussed recent developments and the current status of spent nuclear fuel management in Japan. With the increasing pressure of spent nuclear fuel discharge from the power plants in operation and, by contrast, uncertainties in their processing and management services, spent nuclear fuel storage in the short and medium terms has been receiving the highest priority in nuclear policy formulation in Japan.

Small-scale interim storage devices, as well as capacity expansion, for example, re-racking, and shared uses of existing devices, are being introduced at a number of power stations. Large-scale AFR storage of recyclable fuel resources is to be realized in the medium and long terms. Commercial operation of the storage of recyclable fuel resources concept may be in the off-ing, as the amendment to the law for regulation of nuclear power reactors and other nuclear-related activities has passed in the Diet.

In the Mutsu initiative the following three points should be heeded:. If it is realized with a multiutility venture, it will be a centralized facility, and the issue of local acceptance must be carefully dealt with and overcome. Atomic Energy Commission, Japan. Final Report for Fiscal submitted to the Government. Technical Reports Series No. Vienna: IAEA. Ito, C. Saegusa, and K. Research Report No. Economical evaluation on spent fuel storage technology away from reactor. Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Environment 8 1. Nagano, K. Saegusa, C.

Ito, et al. Denryoku-keizai Kenkyu Economics and Public Utilities — Banff, Canada. A strategic consideration on nuclear fuel cycle with spent nuclear fuel management as its core.