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The case of tango evokes new sets of critical queries regarding the trades of bodily intimacy and affection, the consequences of economic inequality in the area of heterosexual romance, as well as the production of class morals and racialized gender regimes. Throughout an exploration of intimate practices and discursive negotiations a complex landscape of economic inequality and close embrace dancing unfold. View on palgrave-journals. Love Impossible. New York: Routledge. View on taylorandfrancis. Taxi Dancers. Surrey: Ashgate. Tango , Argentina , Intimacy , and Commodification.

View on ashgate. Tangoing Intimacy. Proceedings of the 1st Next-Generation Global Workshop. Asato, Wako and Kaoru Aoyama. Kyoto: Kyoto University Press. Family studies , Tango , and Intimacy. From Threat to Promise. Critical Studies of Gender Equality. Nordic Dislocations, Dilemmas and Contradictions. Stockholm: Makadam.

View on makadambok. Tourism and the Globalization of Emotions. The Intimate Economy of Tango more. Today, an increasing number of people from all over the world travel to Buenos Aires to dance tango. To accommodate these intimate voyagers, tourist agencies offer travel packages, including classes in tango instruction, dance shoe To accommodate these intimate voyagers, tourist agencies offer travel packages, including classes in tango instruction, dance shoe shopping, and special city maps pointing out the tango clubs in town.

Based on a cheek-to-cheek ethnography of intimate life in the tango clubs of Buenos Aires, this book provides a passionate exploration of tango — its sentiments and symbolic orders — as well as a critical investigation of the effects of globalization on intimate economies. As the narrative charts a course across a sea of intense, immediate emotional sensations, taken-for-granted ideas about sex, romance and power twist and turn like the steps of the tango.

View on routledgementalhealth. In the book, we suggest that In the book, we suggest that this can be done through the lenses that are provided by popular culture. Besides an introductory chapter where we state the importance of a passionate reading of feminist theory, we discuss five perspectives through scenes from well-known movies such as Thelma and Louise and My life in pink. Feminist Theory and Film Studies.

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The most highly qualified choreographer, for example able to choreograph world-class ballet or contemporary dance on the greatest stages, might not be able to choreograph effectively for a small group of seven-year-olds for a local dance show, or for a group of elderly people wanting to socialise and exercise. Effective choreography must primarily understand and respond to the needs and abilities of the dancers and the audience, just as the design of anything else must be 'fit for purpose', and not necessarily the exhibition of the designer's entire technical command of the subject.

Choreography is an absolutely fundamental aspect of dance, and especially the teaching of dance, the staging of dance performance, and the use of dance in any entertainment or dance show situation. It could be said that: "Choreography is to dance, what songwriting is to pop music, and composition is to classical music and opera. Choreography consists of planning and arranging the steps, movements, positioning and patterns of a dance. Choreography is typically created technically 'scored' or 'notated' to match a particular song or piece of music.

And certain types of dance - for example African dance, and Contemporary and Theatrical dance, may be choreographed to drums, or percussion, or other sounds, or the spoken word, or even silence. These elements of a choreographed dance may be noted technically 'notated' in a variety of ways depending on the dance genre, and to a degree the working preferences of the choreographer and dancers, etc.

The rules applying to choreography vary according to the dance forms. There are different ways to define the different types of choreography. Choreography is not a precise science like chemistry or mathematics, although certain forms of 'dance notation' by which choreography and dance movements are recorded are extremely scientific and can be based very much on mathematics and science.

Dance notation is however not the same as choreography.. Choreography can be used in dance with varying degrees of rigidity, here shown as three main approaches:. Improvisation , in which a choreographer provides dancers with a 'score' i. For example, a score might direct one dancer to withdraw from another dancer, who in turn is directed to avoid the withdrawal, or it might specify a sequence of movements that are to be executed in an improvised manner over the course of a musical phrase, as in contra dance choreography.

Improvisational scores typically offer wide latitude for personal interpretation by the dancer. Planned choreography , in which a choreographer dictates motion and form in detail, leaving little or no opportunity for the dancer to exercise personal interpretation. Essential to any performance or show, choreography determines the potential quality of a dance.

It could be argued that choreography often determines actual quality too, because choreography should in many cases anticipate the skill level of the dancers. Dance choreography is an essential skill within virtually all dance teaching qualifications. This means that dancers need to know sufficient dance theory before they can begin to teach others, and this is generally more than the theory that is required to learn how to dance. The choreography is by Maria Hennings Hunt, and the use of these choreography examples in this article is gratefully acknowledged.

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It's interesting that in these examples of Line Dancing 'step sheets' the choreography language is relatively simple. This is especially so for 'Red Dress' because the choreography is for beginners. Choreography language is extremely varied - some is simple and some complex. Line Dancing is a dance form that generally does not demand particularly complex language, especially at a beginner's level. That said, actually creating and writing choreographing a dance that is simple and easy to follow for dancers as these example illustrate is not a simple easy thing to do.

Often great expertise is required to produce a simple design, and a simple set of instructions. Video is increasingly used for recording choreography, and for teaching and directing all forms of dancing, including classical dance such as ballet. In most dance situations this is not a real risk or problem, but it could easily be a problem if you were attempting to direct Swan Lake at Covent Garden, or to cascade dance teaching - and invite feedback and development of the dance - through a number of teachers to many students, so that everyone could reliably understand every movement from every angle, and understand the feedback and proposed changes, etc.

Therefore dance notation is likely remain the most scientifically reliable way to record and communicate a choreographed dance to students, teachers, academics, etc. Dance notation is alternatively called 'choreology'. The word 'choreology' is strongly associated with and perhaps popularly derived from the Benesh Movement Notation system BMN , one of the most popular and long-standing international dance notation systems.

Benesh Movement Notation is actually sometimes called Choreology. Wikipedia says: "Dance Notation Several dance notation systems have been invented, many of which are designed to document specific types of dance. Recorded dance notation that describes a dance is known as a dance score The primary uses of dance notation are historical dance preservation through documentation, and analysis or reconstruction of choreography, dance forms, and technical exercises.

In ethnochoreology, dance notation is used to document dance for study. Dance notation was pioneered by Frenchman Pierre Beauchamp firstly for Baroque dance. This earliest formal notation method used symbols, and enabled formal recording of dances through the s. The French-Russian ballet dancer and choreographer Marius Petipa is regarded as the most influential 'ballet master' and choreographer in ballet history, and his recorded choreography of classic Russian ballets - and elsewhere in Europe he was prolific - using the Stepanov notation are central in the Sergeyev Collection, since at Harvard University Library, and which is seminal in the history of classical ballet and related theatrical areas.

BMN is also known as Benesh notation or 'Choreology'. Benesh Movement Notation is a dance notation system originally designed to document dance movements, and subsequently developed to record other types of human movement. BMN is used by the Royal Academy of Dance to teach ballet, and since has also been a computerized system. The Benesh notation system's five-line stave is respectively for head, shoulders, waist, knees and feet, top-to-bottom, obviously , showing a rear view of the body. One full dancer view is called a frame.

A line in the top space indicates a new head position. Direction change is indicated below the stave. A stick figure is written on a five-lined staff. Each line of the staff represents a specific level. The bottom line of the staff is called the Foot Line. It represents the ground. The next line up is the Knee Line, which is at knee level, when the stick figure stands straight. The next line up is the Hip Line, and after that, the Shoulder Line: When the figure bends its knees or jumps in the air, it is lowered or raised accordingly on the staff.

The five-lined staff acts as a level guide. Figures and symbols are written from left to right, notating movement position by position, as if stopping a film frame by frame It's beautiful. Labanotation uses abstract symbols to define:. Motif Notation is designed to convey a sense and shape of general movement rather than highly specific movement record instruction as enabled by Labonotation. EWMN is used beyond dance, for example in physical therapy, autism diagnosis, and animal study.

It is substantially different and more flexible than many other notation systems, based on a human stick-figure representation and adaptable grid layout. The Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation methodology basically works like this: The stick-figure body is divided at its joints. Each line between two joints is a 'line segment' a limb or part-limb. A limb in fixed position equates to centre of sphere, and the radius line from centre to the edge of the sphere is the limb length.

Position of the free end of the limb or part-limb is fixed by two values on the surface of the sphere, like latitude and longitude on a globe. Positions are written as vertical number over the horizontal number. Movements are therefore shown as transitions between starting and ending values, equating to positions. This listing and summary of dance notation systems is not exhaustive, and is open to more ideas. Please send a brief summary of suggested additions, together with any other improvements for this free dance guide.

There are already many big technical glossaries of dancing terms, so this one is a bit different, and as with other materials on this website, it adds something new, rather than replicates what's already out there. This glossary includes some basic dance terminology if it's interesting in some way, and other more unusual fascinating dance terms that you might never use, except to enthuse to other people about the words and meanings, and the wonder of dancing.

This is a glossary of dance words - and definitions and origins - that are curious, fascinating, funny and interesting or inspiring - to excite and and entertain people, and to encourage wonderment about dance - to realise how deeply connected dancing is to life on earth, and to the sun and moon and stars, and whatever God or universal force rocks and rolls your universe.


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The name reflects the seriousness, and 'academic' nature, of the theoretical and technical 'school' teaching associated with the ballet dance genre. Thirteen selected 'dancing masters' were tasked to produce standards of perfection in and codification for 'court and character' dances, and to offer examination and and qualifications to dance teachers.

L'Academie Royale de Dance closed at the fall of the French monarchy in and was the first official dance institute, and the first body of standards and qualifications for 'western' classical dance. It briefly re-opened as a ballroom dance school: Societe Academie de Prefesseurs Artistes du Theatre de l'Opera.

More than 20 books have been translated into 15 languages. The Angelina Ballerina character was created by US author Katharine Holabird and English illustrator Helen Craig, and has grown into a substantial brand and business franchise, beloved by generations of children all around the world, extending to a touring ballet and lots of merchandise. Angelina Ballerina is an example of dance being interpreted into fantasy characters and stories, media and products, that can drive consumer interest on a truly vast scale. This is just one example of a huge number of dance-related competitions across all dance genres and styles, all around the world.

If you can think of a dance style, or a dance-related capability, then somewhere there will be a competition for it. Dance is many things to many people, detailed at length in this article - Competition is an important aspect, that drives development and innovation and lots else. Like the dance origins, the word ballet is French, taken from Italian 'ballo' meaning a dance, from earlier Latin, ballare, to dance.

Ballet can be regarded as the beginnings of most types of formalized theatre dance.

The Ballets de cour Court ballets were the earliest French ballets, of the s, performed in the French royal court. The first ballet de cour was performed 15 Oct , and thereafter at festivals and weddings. Louis XIII presided over later richer developments. The ballets de cour evolved into into 'comedie-ballet' and 'opera-ballet' during s.

Jean-Philippe Rameau is cited by some as creating work c. In this single definition we see the beginnings of classical modern dance. It would not be normal to put your drinks or packed-lunch on this type of bar, although I bet some people do it. The latter especially is somewhat limited in its application to other dance forms line dancing, disco, etc , and these terms are examples of movements in ballet that tend to be restricted to ballet.

His work was decades ahead of its time, and was also daring in containing much sexual innuendo. Significantly Berkeley had no formal dance training, and this is perhaps an example or lesson that even in extremely demanding technical disciplines, creativity can be most brilliant when it is not constrained by 'taught' and therefore typically unavoidably technique. The strength and quality, and size and influence of The Bolshoi fluctuated through the s with the movements of Russian socio-political history, strengthening and stabilizing during the 20th century after The Russian revolutionary turmoil, and then declining again from the s after the breakdown of Russian communism when the Bolshoi was forced to become independently viable.

In the French language 'can-can' may be translated to mean scandal, or scandalous gossip - and in its early years the Can-can was certainly scandalous, as dancers wore open-crotched pantalettes long-legged knickers. The Can-can was originally danced by men and women, and then by prostitutes, until the entertainment attracted bigger fee-paying audiences, upon which the Can-can became the familiar modern 'chorus line' of highly skilled professional female dancers.

The Can-can evolved international variations, and a fixed routine ostensibly for 'tourist' audiences emerged in France in the s. Many composers have created Can-can music. And many artists, notably Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, have painted can-can dancers. The Can-can, danced to this music, has been featured in many films, notably mids US movies about cowboys and the Wild West. The s and modern Can-can dance typically entails lush multi-petticoated dresses, stockings, high kicks and 'rond de jambe en l'air' moves lower leg circles in the air exposing frilly knickers, with splits and cartwheels.

The Can-can's modern formats have encouraged progressively more impressive acrobatics performed by dancers individually in turn. There is also much screaming and shrieking by the dancers, to maximise the sensory assault. The Can-can is strongly linked to the Moulin Rouge nightclub in Paris. Charles Mazurier, a French acrobatic entertainer of the s is considered a primary innovator of the Can-can. Cabaret in this sense combines several forms of flamboyant ironic highly suggestive song, dance and entertainment, including Burlesque, Striptease, comedy, etc. The Cabaret genre has in more recent times been embraced and developed substantially and tremendously enjoyably and entertainingly by the transgender communities across Europe and beyond.

The word cabaret emerged in France c. The chasse is originally from ballet, and is found in many other dance forms in several variations gliding. Besides this he pioneered computerized choreography, starting in the s. Cunningham trained originally in tap, ballroom and folk dance, and thereafter shifted his talents to modern dance, collaborating for decades with composer and life-partner John Cage.

Born in Trinidad, she became a dancer, choreographer, teacher, and then during the ss worked increasingly in China, where she transformed Chinese modern dance - through choreography, education, diplomacy, and by leading the development of Chinese dance administration, and dance teaching infrastructure. Dai Ailian is therefore a seminal character in Chinese dance, and is considered directly responsible for enabling China to build its first generations of modern dancers, choreographers, teachers and institutional dance educators and officials. Dance notation in this glossary because of the following fascinating point: that prior to the invention of sufficiently accurate dance notation methods, considered to have begun with Labanotation, first explained and published in , the reliable recording of any dance - and significantly all ballets prior to - was actually impossible.

Dance earlier could best be recorded and conveyed by personal physical demonstration and memory. We might wonder therefore what dances prior to the 20th century have been distorted or lost altogether. This is typically defined further as being ballet founded on principles defined by Beauchamp, Blasis and later teachers. The danse macabre genre is no longer a mainstream entertainment. He was a keen and creative and passionate supporter of the arts - especially ballet - also a businessman, and one of the most important people in re-building Russian Ballet for the 20th century.

He was particularly skilled in spotting and nurturing talent, and in facilitating and maintaining collaborations between the most brilliant composers, choreographers and dancers, and the necessary systemic considerations, to create world-leading ballets, many of which survive today. It was the first film to sell more than a million copies on home video, and the Dirty Dancing soundtrack produced two multi-platinum albums and multiple singles, notably ' I've Had The Time of My Life', winning the Golden Globe, and Academy Award, for Best Original Song, and a Grammy Award for best duet.

Dirty Dancing became a sell-out stage show, and encouraged huge new interest in Latin dance styles, and related genres. The film featured lots of Salsa dancing, and blended styles combining Merengue and Cha cha cha.

Dance: History, Theory, Benefits, Teaching

It was choreographed by American producer and choreographer Kenny Ortega, who also designed dances for Michael Jackson, and directed the series of High School Musical films. There are many extraordinary organizations around the world which run schools, classes, teaching, therapies, and personal development of various sorts, to make dance accessible for people who are visually impaired or blind to use the traditional term , or sensorily or physically impaired in some other way. The AMICI dance theatre company mixes able-bodied and disabled artists and performers, and is noted for staging radical moving productions.

She performed modern and contemporary dance to serious adulation across Europe having left the USA to develop her dancing in what she considered to be the centres of excellence. She was a choreographer and teacher, and a highly significant dance celebrity and role model, in the days before mass media. The concept, also called Eurythmie, French , was taught by Jacques-Dalcroze in the early s until the start of the First World War in Eurythmics became popular in western especially British schools later in the 20th century, and more widely as a fundamental reference and application theory for dance and music.

The word is from Greek, 'eurhythmia' meaning 'rhythmic order and graceful motion'. The other leg remains on the floor, obviously, or the dancer would fall over. At the highest level of physical dance prowess, dancers, typically female, aim to be able to achieve the 'half-past midnight' position, whereby the leg is raised high enough to brush the dancer's own ear. Do not try this at home unless you are very supple and have created a soft landing area around you.

Put simply, fall-recovery or fall-and-recovery is the blending of three phases actually, a falling movement, a recovery, and a suspension, so that two opposing types of movement are balanced. Walking is in fact a series of fall and recovery movements. The sense of gravity in all 'fall-recover' movements is significant.

So is the dancer's breathing. The timings and movement relationships between the phases are infinitely variable, and the successful dancer produces these movements in sympathy with the music so that the whole effect is balanced and harmonious, and joyful to see. Fall-recovery is a simple deeply connected and meaningful concept as to how humans sense and appreciate beautiful dancing movements. Doris Humphrey the American dancer, choreographer, author and educationalist, is credited with the codification of the 'fall-and-recovery' principle in her book, The Art of Making Dances.

Fall-recovery is correlated to similar theories, notably Martha Graham's 'contraction-release', and Rudolf Laban's 'Anspannung-Abspannung' tension-release. The word fandango has long been a metaphor for an unnecessarily complicated process, which is an allusion to the complexities of the dance.

The film - employing more than 1, artists and over cartoon characters - is a supreme example of artistic genius and choreographic innovation on a vast and unprecedented scale, for which Disney's team also made intense studies of real dancers of the times, such as Baranova and Riabouchinska, to enable the creation of fabulous dance by entirely fantastic characters, using tens of thousands of individually drawn pictures for the frame-by-frame animation.

These remain the five classic feet positions for modern classical ballet. So Pierre Beauchamps did a very good job. Here are Wikipedia's descriptions I'm open to improvements, thank you:. The first basic position requires the feet to be flat on the floor and turned out pointing in opposite directions as a result of rotating the legs at the hips.

The term is significant because it refers to the dances of the peasant classes, compared to the ballroom dances of the upper classes that first emerged in the s. Folk dance reminds us that dancing became and remained to a degree a reflection of social class and division. Since the first separation of dance according to social class, and increasingly in modern times, folk dances have influenced and integrated with other styles of dance, blurring the separations, especially theatre and social dancing.

Where folk dances survive close to their original form they tend to do so for historic interest or academic reasons, or as tourist attractions. The institution remains noted for lavish and controversial erotic dance performances, including much female semi-nudity and nudity, outrageous costumes, and circus-type acts and cabaret-style singing and dancing. From she danced with Russian ballet superstar Rudolf Nureyev, which became the most famous dance pairing in ballet history. He became a Broadway dancer in , and was choreographing professionally soon after for theatre and films.

Fosse changed dance for ever, and influenced and inspired countless thousands of choreographers, dancers, designers, and entertainers. His work continues to entertain and bring joy to millions, probably actually billions of people. If you do not know the internet, 'went viral' means it achieved vast popularity rapidly via social media - and 'social media' is rather like everyone in the world knowing and seeing and hearing what everyone else is doing, and being able to send practically anyone anything, except touch and smell, which will happen before long. Given that there are only about 8billion people in the whole world, that's a lot of views, even if some people did see it more than once, or actually more than fifty times.

Gangnam Style combined a clever song and funny dance, a bit like pretending to ride a horse, that appealed globally and influenced especially young people and makers of entertainment everywhere. Gangnam Style filled dancefloors everywhere with people pretending to ride a horse. The crazy success of Gangnam Style would have been impossible five years earlier, because the world then was not connected adequately by social media.

Arguably the world was not ready for the Gangnam Style song and dance then either. Gangnam Style - which means something quite different to horse-riding, in fact a reference to an up-market district called Gangnam in Seoul, South Korea, meaning 'south of the river' - is an example of how the huge popularity of any dance depends on more than artistic dance creation - it depends on novelty, fun, music and song, lyrics, costume, and crucially society and technology too.

Where these elements combine harmoniously and relevantly, then creative art - especially song and dance - can achieve popularity beyond imaginings. The digitally connected world of the 21st century will enable future song and dance phenomena of even more mind-blowing proportions and speed and impact, that we simply cannot conceive until they happen. How exciting. Like many ballet terms it is similar to a musical term, in this case glissando, referring to a playing a sliding transition between two notes. Her family were Presbyterian and non-dancers, and her father was an 'alienist' an early form of psychiatry.

Martha Graham's own dance education from c. Martha Graham, whose 'trademark' teaching method is called the 'Graham technique', pioneered systems of dance teaching emphasizing the use of lower back and pelvis in generating movement, with the importance of breathing, and the fundamental principles of contraction-and-release. She was still performing at age Martha Graham choreographed for Fonteyn and Nureyev, collaborated with leading fashion designers, was the first dancer to perform at the White House, built a sizeable dance corporation, became a US cultural ambassador, and received the Presidential Medal of Freedom the highest US civilian award.


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  4. We can therefore regard Martha Graham as among the first dance professionals to successfully combine dance, innovation, education, business and diplomacy, on a serious international scale. Humphrey devised the concept of fall-and-recovery, and emphasized the importance and use of gravity, self-expression and emotion especially in her work and teachings.

    She referred to 'dancing from the inside out'; to the transition between balance and being off-balance, and to dance existing in 'the arc between two deaths', i. In more recent times Ice Dance has occasionally become a global audience phenomenon, for example Torvill and Dean's Bolero routine at the Winter Olympics. During the s ice dance shows became extremely popular. For example Hindu belief is that Shiva, the Lord of the Dance, created heaven and earth when he danced the Dance of Creation.

    Ancient guidelines for music, drama and dance are proposed in the classical texts of Bharata's Natya Shastra, dated between BC and AD. Major dance forms include Kathakali, Manipuri, Odissi and Kathak.

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    Sadly much traditional dance was suppressed by colonial British rule. Happily the transition towards independence during the s enabled India to experience a major resurgence of its native dances, in performance, popularity, teaching and wider education and study. In the late s classical Indian dance began to spread around the world, alongside the development of new dance styles, fuelled by improving economic prosperity, liberation, modernization, education, infrastructure, and technology.

    By the end of the s the Bollywood movie industry was the biggest in the world, and the Bollywood style of music and dance had become among the most popular, if not actually the most popular dance form on Earth. The depth and sophistication of India's art, culture, philosophy, and people, guarantees that all sorts of dance in and emanating from India will continue to develop in amazing wonderful ways.

    In certain forms of dance, good isolation skills are essential, and hugely affect the quality of the dance; in other dance forms, isolation is less significant. Certain isolation is easy, for example a simple movement of one hand or leg. Other isolation abilities are far more challenging, for example, many hip movements, or moving a shoulder in a specific way, or in some body positions moving the head, or the stomach muscle control in belly dancing. Note that the body might be in an unusual position while trying to isolate the movement of a particular body part, which might also present challenges.

    And of course movement must be appropriately artistic and sympathetic for the music and mood, and expression, etc. This can be so challenging that it's impossible to do it well without substantial training and practice, and considerable levels of fitness and muscle control too. So isolation in dance is quite an involved subject. There are many jig variations. Jigs are particularly associated with Irish dance and music, and the fiddle violin. Generally a jig is a fast solo dance. Kabuki began as an all-female blend of prayer dance, folk dance, and erotic dance, with added comic mime.

    Women played the parts of men as well as women. Due to the erotic content and changing Japanese attitudes, women were banned from dancing in Kabuki from , and replaced by boys. Then boys were banned in , which gave rise to the male 'omnagata' female impersonator in Kabuki, subsequently becoming an honoured profession for which boys were trained from childhood. Kabuki later split into theatre and dance genres, each full of vivid storytelling, and women were re-admitted to Kabuki performance. The three Japanese kanji characters for the word Kabuki represent 'sing', 'dance', and 'skill', and this helps explain the original ethos of Kabuki as a dance form.

    Related term is 'kinesics', meaning the study of body movements and gestures as non-verbal communications. These are from Greek 'kinesis', meaning motion. The beginnings of the Kirov Ballet were the Russian court dancers trained at the Empress Anna Ivanovna's dance school, which evolved initially into the Russian Imperial Ballet, reflecting its royal patronage. In more recent times the Mariinsky Ballet is the official name, linked to the school, now known as the Vaganova Ballet Academy. He became a specialist in the analysis of human movement - its dynamics and expression Laban is mainly noted excuse the pun for developing his system of dance notation, called initially 'Kinetographie Laban', published , which was later named Labanotation, which is a major dance notation system internationally.

    Jules Leotard more impressively developed the art of trapeze acrobatics and became an international entertainer and celebrity. Interestingly he was also the inspiration for the song by George Leybourne, and its popular refrain, " He'd fly through the air with the greatest of ease, That daring young man on the flying trapeze Maillot also means a leotard or similarly designed swimsuit.

    Any maillot interpretation tends to entail stretchy fabric. Dictionaries vary as to origins. The Oxford Dictionary of Dance says maillot is named after a 19th century costumier at the Paris Opera. Wikipedia says maillot is of French origin meaning swaddling clothes, and that it's mainly a swimsuit or cyclist's shirt, for example the leader of the Tor de France wears the 'maillot jaune' yellow jersey. The Oxford English Dictionary says maillot is all three: dancer's tights, a ladies swimsuit, and a cyclist's top, and that the origin is French.

    Ballet was adopted in the English royal court rather later than in France. The masque performance - which was also an entertainment for commoners - derived from masked processions and medieval 'mummers plays' mummers, from older language meanings of mask, Greek mommos, or silence, as in 'mum' Old English.

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    Masque entertainment comprised music, songs, dances, and strong literary content, sometimes by famous writers such as Ben Johnson and John Milton. In masque we see the early development of formal dance for the upper classes. Masque is French for mask. French, and progressively Anglo-French, was the language of the English court and nobility for hundreds of years after the Norman invasion of The English language retained its Anglo-French nature permanently thereafter, and so, unsurprisingly, this is reflected in the history of dance and its terminology.

    Masked entertainment is fascinating and is found deep in human culture and entertainment everywhere. In more detail, Mime refers to conveying a story, event, situation, mood, character, feeling, word s , joke, or any other concept, by using non-verbal communications such as body movements, gestures, facial expressions, costume, make-up, masks, and potentially other props too. The word Mime is from Ancient Greek mimos, and later Latin mimus, which meant actor or imitator, or mimic hence the word mimic.

    Mime was first standardized as an entertainment by the Ancient Greeks and then the Romans, when it included strong elements of farce and comedy. It's not surprising that Mime developed in this way, given the challenges of conveying stories and meanings to large audiences before microphones, PA systems, printed notes, and books, etc.

    Mime continued to feature in the development of dance for more than two thousand years, as it still does today in most dance forms, to a small or substantial degree. Mime was central to the earliest forms of classical dance and ballet, notably 'Ballet de cour', 'masques', 'mummers' plays, and to the development countless styles of folk and tribal dances, all around the world.

    Mime also exists as a significant and popular theatrical and street art form in its own right, quite separately from dance. Mime was the principal component in the beginnings of the movie industry, in silent films, and Mime survives today and lends itself to adaptation for all sorts of entertainment and new media, including large-scale film animations, and moving graphics extending even to logos and emoticons, used and seen by billions of people, billions of times every day, on modern smartphones, computers and digital devices.

    The term Mudra is included in this glossary to illustrate that the meaning of dance is subject to varying interpretations between different cultures. To emphasise this point, here's the Wikipedia definition of Mudra.. While some mudras involve the entire body, most are performed with the hands and fingers.